文学

客座博客:Voivode vs. Vampire– 德古拉 in Modern 文学

伯明翰大学杰玛·诺曼(Gemma Norman)

名字‘Dracula’ is a name synonymous with 吸血鬼s: the handsome, seductive aristocratic Count of 布拉姆·斯托克’小说是听到名字时首先想到的图像。大多数人也听过Vlad the Impaler这个名字,但是它’很难找到一个知道自己是同一个人的人。在罗马尼亚语中称为 弗拉德·奥佩ÅŸ 而在土耳其语中 哈萨克族库鲁贝 (刺穿王子)弗拉德三世统治了三届 Voivode (来自斯拉夫的军阀)。 Basarab Vlad议院的分支DrăculeÅŸti院士的名字‘Dracula’来自他的父亲,也叫弗拉德(Vlad)‘Dracul’ or ‘The Dragon’由于他是匈牙利国王西吉斯蒙德(Kig Sigismund)赞助下的骑士团成员。该命令宣誓要与奥斯曼帝国土耳其人作战,并使巴尔干地区免受土耳其的入侵。他父亲的年轻弗拉德感到如此骄傲’他被称为的角色‘Dracula’ meaning ‘Son of the Dragon’尽管有些解释认为它是‘Son of the Devil’此外,他还承担了对土耳其人的战争任务。

德拉库拉(2)无论Bram Stoker这个名字的翻译是什么,都足以使他的主人公重命名,而这位主人公最初被称为‘Count Vampyre’, to ‘Dracula’ thus precipitating over a century of gothic horror canon which became more famous than the actual 历史. However there is indication that Stoker’s research did go beyond simply the borrowing of a name. In the novel the Count boasts of the exploits of his ancestors as great warlords and gives hints as to the 历史 of the real 德古拉. Also in 2009 the Official sequel to the gothic horror bestseller was published as 德古拉: 不死之身. Author credits go Dacre Stoker, a descendent of Bram, and Ian Holt a prominent 德古拉 historian who between them resurrected information in 布拉姆·斯托克’的旧研究笔记本暗示已经计划了续集。在 不死之身 另一个著名的历史‘vampire’以伯爵夫人伊丽莎白·巴瑟里的形式出场演奏;通常被认为在Stoker的表征中起了重要作用’s original, this sequel now sees both Bathory and 德古拉 in a very alpha 吸血鬼 battle, settling old debts and grudges with the wealth of 历史 and animosity that only immortals could have.

Despite the constant popularity of 吸血鬼s the historical 德古拉 has made a recent comeback of his own in modern literature with many authors taking research into his 吸血鬼 alter-ego a step further. Kim Newman’s Anno 德古拉 系列和伊丽莎白·科斯托娃’s 历史学家 both use 德古拉 as a 吸血鬼 but he is also the historical Vlad who has been turned into a 吸血鬼. This representation of 德古拉 is effective in romanticising his 历史 as it pits the immortality and seductiveness of the 吸血鬼 against the barbarity of the Impaler’的年龄形成了鲜明的对比。斯托克’s 德古拉 was to some extent a ‘fish out of water’渴望维多利亚式绅士城市化的主角,这与吸血鬼的嗜血性格格格不入。 Anno 德古拉 shows that blood-lust given full licence in Victorian England and 德古拉 is very much the villain of the novel. 历史学家 比较复杂。科斯托娃’s 吸血鬼 is a scholar as well as a seducer and still has the ability to control human slaves by his bite which he uses to lure the brightest academic minds he can find into researching his 历史, to some extent trying to keep his legacy alive through the agency of the historians. But there is the suggestion of his trying to encourage a revisionist scholarship in his own 历史, and despite the cavalier attitude of Kostova’s 德古拉 he does attempt to justify his 历史 and defend himself against false accusations.

Historical novelists have also started using 德古拉’s 历史 independently of the 吸血鬼 legend. These titles include Vlad 德古拉: 龙 Prince 迈克尔·奥古斯丁(Michael Augustyn) 德古拉 Chronicles: 龙之子 由Victor T. Foia和 弗拉德:最后的告白 by C. C. Humphreys. These stories also use the chivalric legacy of the Order of the Dragon in their representations of 德古拉 in his warlord persona. The problem of this is the same as with any other work of historical fiction, how far should historical accuracy be compromised for the sake of artistic licence? With the 德古拉 legend already so far removed from historical reality already there is a temptation for a historian to be overly strict on this point. 弗拉德:最后的告白 经过深入研究(您可以找到作者的相册’在他的网站上对罗马尼亚的研究访问),并使用了德古拉提供的供词的取景器’的前牧师,他最好的朋友和死后的情妇。字符的这种选择可以覆盖历史弗拉德的几个关键’的身份,作为反对穆斯林土耳其人的基督徒,作为爱国军阀保护自己的土地,以及作为淫荡的个人,以类似于亨利八世的风格出名育出了几个混蛋。汉弗莱斯让弗拉德·德古拉大受好评’的年轻人在奥斯曼帝国的法院被劫为人质,以及他和他的兄弟之间由于后者而发生的裂痕’conversion依伊斯兰教并忠于苏丹穆罕默德二世。话虽如此,当汉弗莱斯以主角的角色从死者那里复活时,他并没有超越德古拉传奇的奇幻元素,其风格与围绕伊丽莎白女王克里斯托弗·马洛(Christopher Marlowe)逝世的阴谋论非常相似。考虑到研究吸血鬼的障碍,很难说这种可能性是否在现实中发生。’的历史。首先是任何历史调查的问题,这是主要来源的偏见:即使作者具备翻阅罗马尼亚和斯拉夫语源资料所需的语言能力,也缺少历史学家’评估这些来源的培训。此外,DräƒculeÅŸti史学受到巴尔干历史学家公然的民族主义的破坏,在那里他仍然被尊为英雄,而西方人则对他的生活中具有轰动性的方面进行了诱惑,而忽略了诸如经济政策等更为平凡的事情。但是历史和文学不是一门学科,强加历史学家的局限性是不公平的’依靠小说家的想象力。另一方面,令人欣喜的是,人们对德古拉的潜力有了越来越多的认识’的历史是通俗文化的灵感。吸血鬼的传说将永远是德古拉文学的一个丰富多彩的方面,但现在的读者现在可以在选择阅读材料时为Voivode和吸血鬼提供更多选择。

杰玛·诺曼(Gemma Norman)是大一 伯明翰大学奥斯曼研究博士学位.
除了对流行文化历史和其他几个历史领域的代表性感兴趣之外,她还参与了拜占庭奥斯曼帝国和现代希腊研究中心的研究生协会。 http://gembirmingham.org/

52条留言

  1. pingback: 客座博客:Voivode vs. Vampire– 德古拉 in Modern 文学 | 有趣的文学| Phil Slattery's Art of Horror

  2. Thank you very much, Dr Miller, for taking time to answer my questions! I am not a professional scholar myself, merely an avid 德古拉 fan and sanguivoriphile, but I imagine you must get asked these questions all the time, so I really appreciate your patience. It was also a pleasure. Thank you again.

  3. 米勒博士:

    I’征文(在您编辑的书中,布拉姆·斯托克 ’s德古拉(Dracula)绝对是一流的,您的案子是令人信服的,我感谢它的学术严谨性(这也适用于整个收藏)。我对这个特别的要求感到好奇,也就是说,您是否认为斯托克在他的小说中打算在他在威尔金森读过的《德雷库拉》和他的《伯爵》之间找到自己的身份?这与说德古拉伯爵是不同的’这个角色源自Voivode,这是您有说服力地拒绝的主张。如果我们要完全进入虚构的斯托克世界’的小说是德古拉伯爵(Dracula voivode 德古拉),或者在Stoker中’在虚构的宇宙中,他们是两个独立的个体吗?

    在您的著作中,我对此不太清楚。

    • Thanks for your comments. Yes, I believe that 斯托克made the connection between the voivode 德古拉 and his Count. (“He must have been that voivode 德古拉…”) But this was shaped solely by the few sentences he read in Wilkinson. Actually, Wilkinson mentions 德古拉 3 times –但其中之一实际上是指德拉克’s father, Vlad 德拉库尔. In the novel, 斯托克constructs a “history” for his fictional 德古拉 which comprises bits and pieces taken from his research and has nothing to do with Vlad. There is no evidence that 斯托克knew anything more about the real 德古拉 (Vlad) than what he found in Wilkinson.

  4. 还有,米勒博士,我刚下令布拉姆·斯托克’s 德古拉: A Documentary Volume, and I am eager to read it.

    而且,诺曼(Norman)女士也是出色的客座博客。

  5. 伊丽莎白·米勒:

    Who is the voivode referenced in the novel by both the Count and Van Helsing if not Vlad 德古拉?

    • 约瑟夫。当然,小说中提到的重要人物就是我们现在所知的黑豹弗拉德(Vlad the Impaler)(但没有证据表明斯托克知道这一点)。我的论点是弗拉德或弗拉德 ’s life & deeds, did not inspire 斯托克in his creation of Count 德古拉. To claim that Count 德古拉 is “based”在弗拉德(Vlad)上的说法是夸大其词。斯托克借了这个名字“Dracula”(他的Notes证明了这一点),但除此之外别无其他。要查看我的完整论点,因为过于详尽而无法在此处呈现,请阅读我的文章“Filing for Divorce: Count 德古拉 and Vlad the Impaler.” 您 will find it at my 德古拉 Research Centre. Go to http://www.blooferland.com/drc, 点击“Stoker & 德古拉: Miscellaneous Articles”. It’s the first one. I also devote a full chapter to this (in nit-picky detail) in my book 德古拉: Sense &废话(现在可作为点燃的电子书获得)。

  6. There is a new 德古拉 film coming up called The Impaler – see trailer here: http://youtu.be/qn-c01XEB3Y

  7. 作为罗马尼亚人,’很高兴看到这个故事终于呈现出了实际发生的方式。我给你戴顶帽子,杰玛。

    • 我来这里已经很长时间了,但是我不得不感谢您的好评论!一世’m glad I could show you in a little way that there are people out there interested in the 历史 of your country as well as the folklore!

  8. This post took me back to my university days when I studied 德古拉 during my first degree. 斯托克did, of course, write a prequel (or at least discarded first chapter) which was published as “Dracula’s Guest” after Stoker’s death.

    尽管名称和设置来自著名的穿刺者弗拉德(Vlad),但值得指出的是,这就是相似性终结的地方。怪物的性质来自多种来源,尤其是斯托克是爱尔兰人并且目睹了他家土地上的马铃薯饥荒。最重要的是维多利亚时代的性问题,这是一个禁忌话题。斯托克出色地写了一本小说,实际上是关于男人引诱女人的。德古拉(Dracula)帅气诱人,最终使自己陷入并非不愿接受的女性受害者之中。一本关于性的书而不是关于性的书是使它如此吸引人的原因之一,而故事的这个感性方面继续使它具有吸引力– in all its forms – today.

    • 是的,历史人物(弗拉德)和斯托克之间的联系’s 吸血鬼 Count has been vastly overstated. 斯托克certainly borrowed the nickname “Dracula”来自弗拉德(他在讲义中这样告诉我们),但显然他对瓦拉契省的知之甚少– certainly not enough to have (as many claim) 基于 his novel on his life & atrocities.

  9. 优秀文章–作为出生的罗马尼亚人,我一直对我国的历史感兴趣,特别是因为我母亲来自以前被称为瓦拉奇亚的地区。我不久前曾到过那里,很容易看出该国该地区如何激发哥特式的敏感性。我还是一个吸血鬼神话的热心研究者,并且是各种吸血鬼小说的爱好者…除了一些例外。闪闪发光是其中之一。如果您喜欢旧学校的吸血鬼,也许您想看看我的小说《真正的不朽》。前两章在我的博客上,但是可以在Amazon和Smashwords.com上找到整本小说。我为自己的推广而道歉…but I couldn’不要将这个机会浪费在有关吸血鬼和吸血鬼的博客文章上!再次,精彩的阅读,我感谢历史!

  10. 有趣的一块。一世’d当我完成Stoker时阅读Vlad’s 德古拉 and had learned of many of the facts mentioned here. 您r 文章 adds a whole lot to it though! It gave me some real respect for Stoker’的研究和故事!和你一样,我也喜欢我的吸血鬼‘old school’太。当然,至少在娱乐方面,有良心的吸血鬼是其中一个有趣的方面。但事实是吸血鬼是黑暗的生物。我只希望如今sw绕着十几岁的吸血鬼的人们记得(或至少知道)!

  11. Vampire fiction has currently steered way off course from the historical origins of the European myth. 您r 文章 does a good job of reminding people that 德古拉 isn’t克里斯托弗·李(Christopher Lee),贝拉·卢戈西(Bela Lugosi)或巴菲(Buffy),但在经历了异常暴力和深层次迷信的时代,却是一个非常真实的人。与当前的吸血鬼趋势令人毛骨悚然的少年相去甚远。如果弗拉德·特佩斯(Vlad Tepes)还在坟墓里,他会在坟墓里转弯。

    • As I said I like my 吸血鬼s ‘old school’. Modern fiction if done well can be entertaining but it does have tp have some of the darkness of the original for me to be truly 吸血鬼 authentic. 感谢您的反馈,我 appreciate it.

  12. 重新发布于 马克斯怎么想 并评论:
    I’ve always been fascinated by the mythology of 德古拉 and Vampyrism. Check this out!!!

  13. 重新发布于 恐怖的恐怖博客 并评论:
    An interesting little 文章 on the modern place of 德古拉…

  14. 重新发布于 1写入方式 并评论:
    A fascinating 文章 on the 历史 of 德古拉. The comments to the post are as equally illuminating.

  15. 这是一篇引人入胜的文章!一世’ve always been attracted to the story of 德古拉 and once (many, many years ago) did a fair amount of research into the 历史 of 德古拉 and Vlad the Impaler as well as other “monsters”(例如,巴斯里的伊丽莎白(Elizabeth of Bathory)据说是在处女的血液中沐浴,以保持年轻的外观)。感谢这篇文章;)

  16. 这么好的文章!一世’我一定要在这个万圣节做怪兽系列时再读一遍。非常有帮助,很高兴这篇文章已经发布x

  17. 重新发布于 梅里达's Night Writer 并评论:
    The best blog on the web I know of for stuff literary. By the way who knew the connection between Walt Whitman and 德古拉? See the link
    http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2012/novemberdecember/feature/when-bram-met-walt.

  18. http://www.neh.gov/humanities/2012/novemberdecember/feature/when-bram-met-walt

    Lengthy 文章 on 斯托克and Whitman. Good luck with the research and loved the post. Thanks to Oliver as well

  19. 芽, there is a lengthy in Humanities on Bram 斯托克and Walt Whitman. Mention of 斯托克drafting some of Whitman into 德古拉 is made at the end of the 文章. I’ll发送一个链接。奥利弗(Oliver)曾经一本有趣的文学作品,谢谢您。

  20. Walt Whitman was the model for the character of 德古拉. Bram 斯托克said in his notes that 德古拉 represented the quintessential male, which, to Stoker, was Whitman, with whom he corresponded until Whitman’的死斯托克身边的另一个琐事是他嫁给了王尔德’的初恋佛罗伦萨·巴尔科姆就反弹了。

  21. 是我年轻时最喜欢阅读的主题之一…before 吸血鬼s were so popular! Thanks for the post.

    • 我喜欢‘old school’ 吸血鬼, they are a very refreshing thing when you look at current 吸血鬼 literature in the YA genre!

  22. Thanks. A very interesting post. I particularly enjoyed 历史学家 because of the cultural and geographical 历史, not just blood sucky bits!

  23. 重新发布于 Avampyre.

  24. 确实很有趣!

  25. Glad to see an 文章 with correctly represented names and facts. The potential for dark fantasy has always been quite high in the 历史 and folklore of Romania. Not all literature that came from this is good but Bram Stalker is not only the first, but one of my favorites. As a note, I find equally interesting (while historically wrong) the setting –Bran- of the novel 德古拉. While Tepes never lived there, I must admit it works great for the novel. So as an innocent reader, should I be bothered by it? Although I always knew it wasn’准确地说,我从来没有想过要思考它,因为我一直把它当作是虚构的。

    • 感谢您的反馈意见!我同意应该允许小说成为小说,但是我对艺术家从历史灵感到最终创作所遵循的路线深感兴趣。一世’我也很高兴看到随着历史的流行,弗拉德(Vlad)的使用越来越多,因为流行文化是许多不阅读或实践学术史的人实际上了解过去并经常欣赏历史小说可以促使人们从事的活动。有关该主题的事实历史研究。如果您对基于罗马尼亚的历史和民间传说的黑暗小说感兴趣,我可以推荐(非德古拉主题)海伦·麦凯比(Helen McCabe)的《派珀》。